Compare and Contrast of Research Proposals so far developed in Engineering research: A critical review of proposals submitted to the UK University.

Universities are the organisation our institution that performs their role in contemporary societies which educating a large proportion of the population to generate knowledge. This critical review focus on various research conducted in universities and proposals received. Also, this will help to write new proposals across multiple engineering fields. Due to a large number of research proposals and topics, this includes only focuses on civil engineering project proposals. The civil engineering branch consists of five subdivisions, i.e. structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, water resources engineering, environmental engineering and climate change.

1. Structural engineering

Structural engineering receives proposals and majorly focuses on the following fields,
1. Structural health monitoring, which provides the health about the existing buildings, such as bridges, embankments and tall buildings. Sensors such as pressure sensors, strain gauges, piezo sensors will be utilized to understand the health of existing buildings (Fig.1) The structural health monitoring systems can prevent the damages, saves the capital cost and reduces the maintenance cost. There are still considerable amount of gap is there to develop the monitoring techniques for chemical attacks (Chloride attack), corrosion of steel and material degradation.
2. There is still considerable amount of work need to done in offshore structures (Fig 2), such as foundation design, hydrodynamics, design, wind loads (Fig 3), fire safety, damping, structural load analysis, remediation and repair of off shore structures.
3. There is always a need in smart infrastructure materials such as fire resistant, damp proofing, light weight composites.
4. The increased demand in computational modelling for structural analysis or structural dynamics in Finite element method with messing and without messing, commercial software development is always in need.

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2. Geotechnical engineering

The geotechnical engineering receives proposals in the following research scope,

  1. Ground improvement techniques such as stabilization techniques, com- paction, consolidation, soil-structure interaction and structural dynam- ics requires more research [Sarkkinen et al., 2018].
  2. Due to the population growth and need for multi storey buildings deep foundation and deep excavation has attained more attention.
  3. Development of porous concrete (Fig.4), land reclamation have further scope.

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3.  Environmental engineering

  1. The environment and climate change engineering focuses on flood risk management, climate adaptation and global carbon sequestration.
  2. Due to increased use of autobiles an dindustries teh emission of carbon di oxide becomes serious concern and become serious issue. so that global carbon emissions is recent research needs.

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Also, much more research required in , development of water quality modelling, advanced treatment techniques include oxidation, coagula- tion, filtration, contamination land management[Leng et al., 2020] and hazardous waste management. Also focus on the development of ad- sorption material, i.e. zeolite, activated carbon [Silva et al., 2020].

  1. due to the people living style has changes in recent decades and major use od vaccines and personal care products are increased, so that to re- move the presistent organic pollutants advanced water and wastewater treatment techniques is required. [Niu et al., 2018]
  2. The increase need for energy and waste treatment energy Microbial fuel cells bridges between waste to energy utilization.
  3. The increased disposal of ferlizers and hazardous waste, recovery tech- niques from such as lead recovery using electrokinetic electro coagulat- ing technique have attracted more attention nowadays.

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4. Future recommendation

1.The structures need to be focused on structural health monitoring be- fore its damage and more sophisticated software need to be developed for analysis the buildings.
2. Due to the depletion of ground water and reduce the urban runoff more porous pavements needed more attention.
3. The usage of antibiotics and Personal care products increase the an- tibiotic resistance gene in environment [Lu et al., 2020] and immediate measures need to be addressed[Wu et al., 2020].


    1. [Leng et al., 2020] Leng, L., Wei, L., Xiong, Q., Xu, S., Li, W., Lv, S., Lu, Q., Wan, L., Wen, Z., and Zhou, W. (2020). Use of microalgae based tech- nology for the removal of antibiotics from wastewater: A review. Chemo- sphere, 238:124680.
    2. [Lu et al., 2020] Lu, J., Zhang, Y., Wu, J., Wang, J., and Cai, Y. (2020). Fate of antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water reuse system with integrated membrane process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 382(Au- gust 2019):121025
    3. [Niu et al., 2018] Niu, W., Guo, J., Lian, J., Ngo, H. H., Li, H., Song, Y., Li, H., and Yin, P. (2018). Effect of fluctuating hydraulic retention time (HRT) on denitrification in the UASB reactors. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 132:29–37.
    4. [Sarkkinen et al., 2018] Sarkkinen, M., Kujala, K., and Geh¨or, S. (2018). Eco-friendly geopolymer composite for winter season pavement pothole patching. Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, 38(3):263–275.
    5. li.[Silva et al., 2020] Silva, B., Martins, M., Rosca, M., Rocha, V., Lago, A., Neves, I. C., and Tavares, T. (2020). Waste-based biosorbents as cost- effective alternatives to commercial adsorbents for the retention of flu- oxetine from water. Separation and Purification Technology, 235(April 2019):116139.

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