15 Kinds Of Research Methodologies For Phd. Pupils

Basic Research

Pure research or fundamental research or basic research zooms on enhancing scientific knowledge for the exhaustive understanding of a topic or certain natural phenomena, essentially in natural sciences; knowledge that is obtained for the purpose of knowledge it is called fundamental research.

1.Applied research

Research that covers real life applications of the natural sciences; aimed at offering an answer to particular practical issues and develops novel technologies

Applied research

2.Fixed research versus flexible research

In fixed research, the design of the study is fixed prior to the main phase of data gathering; moreover, fixed designs are essentially theoretical. Variables that need to be controlled and measured need to be known in advance and they are measured quantitatively.

Fixed research versus flexible research

3.Quantitative research and qualitative research

Quantitative research denotes gauging phenomena in various grades; on the other hand, qualitative research sometimes deems Boolean measurements alone; solution can be studied qualitatively for its appropriateness. However, comparison between candidate solutions requires quantitative observation.

Quantitative research and qualitative research

4.Experimental research and non-experimental research

In an experimental design, operationalize the variables to be measured; moreover, operationalize in the best manner. Consider the study expectations, outcome measurement, variable measurement, and the methods to answer research questions.

Think of the practical limitations such as the availability of data-sets and experimental set-ups that represent actual scenarios.

Experimental research and non-experimental research

5.Exploratory research and confirmatory research

Confirmatory research tests a priori hypotheses—outcome predictions done prior to the measurement stage. Such a priori hypotheses are usually derived from a theory or the results of previous studies.

Exploratory research generates a posteriori hypotheses by investigating a data-set and ascertaining potential connection between variables.

6.Explanatory research or casual research

Causal research is also called explanatory research; conducted to ascertain the extent and type of cause-effect relationships. Causal research are conducted to evaluate effects of specific changes on existing norms, various processes etc.

7.Descriptive research

Descriptive research is the available statement of affairs; researcher has no control over variable. Descriptive studies are characterised as simply an effort to ascertain, define or recognize.  Not “why it is that way” nor “how it came to be,” which is the objective of analytical research.

8.Historical research

Historical research explores and explains the meanings, phases and traits of a phenomena or process at a certain phase of time in the past; historical research is a research strategy from the research of history.

9.Casual comparative research

Also called as “ex-post facto” research (In Latin, implies “after the fact”); researchers determine the causes or consequences of differences that already exist between or among groups of individuals.

An effort to ascertain a causative relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable; relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable are usually a suggested relationship (not proved yet) because you do not have complete control over the independent variable

10.Correlational research

Correlational research is a form of non-experimental research technique wherein a researcher measures 2 variables and assesses the statistical connection between them with no influence from any external variable.

The correlation between two variables is given through correlation coefficient, which is a statistical measure that calculates the strength of the relationship between two variables that is a value measured between -1 and +1.

11.Evaluation research method

Evaluation research technique is known as program evaluation and refers to a research purpose instead of a particular technique; objective is to assess the effect of social involvements such as new treatment techniques, innovations in services, etc.

A form of applied research to have some real-world effect. Methods such as surveys and experiments are used in evaluation research.

12.Formative and summative evaluation

While learning is in progress, formative assessment offers feedback and information; measures participant’s progress and also assess researcher’s own progress as well.

For example, when implementing a new program, you can determine whether or not the activity should be used again (or modified) with the help of observation and/or surveying.

Summative assessment happens after the learning has ended and offers info and feedback to sum up the process; essentially, no formal learning is happening at this phase other than incidental learning which might take place through the completion of program.

13.Diagnostic research

Descriptive research studies define the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group.

Studies showing whether certain variables are linked are examples of diagnostic research.

Researcher defines what he or she wants to measure and finds adequate methods for measuring it along with a clear description of ‘population’.

Aim is to obtain complete and accurate information. And the researcher plans the procedure carefully.

14.Prognostic research

Prognostic research (specifically in clinical research) examines chosen predictive variables and risk factors; prognostic research assesses influence on the outcome of a disease. Clinicians have a better understanding of the history of the ailment.

This understanding facilitates clinical decision-making via providing apt treatment alternatives and helps to predict accurate disease outcomes.

Assessing prognostic studies involves ascertaining the internal validity of the study design and assessing the effects of bias or systemic errors.

15.Action research

A systematic inquiry for improving and/or honing researchers’ actions. Researchers find it an empowering experience.

Action research has positive result for various reasons; most important is that action research is pertinent to the research participants.

Relevance is assured because the aim of each research project is ascertained by the researchers, who are also the main beneficiaries of the research observations.



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